Compartmental Modelling

Suggested Level of Knowlege: Detailed

LOs

BT_GS 1.7 Explain the concept of pharmacokinetic modelling of single and multiple compartment models and define:

· Half life

· Clearance

· Zero and first order kinetics

· Volume of distribution

· Bio-availability

· Area under the plasma concentration time curve

· Extraction ratio

BT_GS 1.12 Explain and describe the clinical application of concepts related to intravenous and infusion kinetics including:

· Effect-site and effect-site equilibration time

· Concept of context sensitive half time

· Calculation of loading and maintenance dosage regimens

Past SAQs

2015.2 Discuss the concepts of half life and context sensitive half-time with examples from anaesthetic pharmacology.

2015.1, 2010.1 Describe the time course between an intravenous injection of a general anaesthetic agent to loss of consciousness. Explain the delay using pharmacokinetic principles.

2013.1 Discuss the concept of volume of distribution. How may it be used in the calculation of a loading dose? What assumptions are made in this calculation?

2011.2 What is meant by the term “two compartment model” in pharmokinetics? Use PROPOFOL as an example in explanation.

2009.1 Describe the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of phenytoin.

2005.2, 2001.1 Define the term ‘context-sensitive half time’. How does it differ from the half life typically quoted for a drug? Illustrate this concept by comparing thiopentone vs. propofol and fentanyl vs. remifentanil.

2002.1,1999.2 Outline the factors that determine recovery (offset of action) after ceasing a drug infusion.

2001.2 What do you understand by the term “clearance”. Using propofol as an example, explain briefly the importance of clearance.

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