SS_OB 1.1 Describe the physiological changes and their implications for anaesthesia that occur during pregnancy, labour and delivery, in particular the respiratory, cardiovascular, haematological and gastrointestinal changes
SS_OB 1.5 Describe the mechanism and consequences of aorto-caval compression in pregnancy
Answers to the following statements can be found in Kam & Power, and Miller.
T / F there is no appreciable increase in HR during the first trimester
T / F at term, the HR increases by at least 15%, and CO by about 50%
T / F at term, utero-placental blood flow is about 750 mL/min – this increases the maternal SVR
T / F maternal red cell volume increases by 20% at term – this increases maternal haemoglobin by a similar value
T / F the risk of aortocaval compression is present from about 30 weeks gestation onwards
T / F maternal CO and BP return to normal by about 2 weeks post delivery
Uteroplacental blood flow at term is approximately 1125mL/min TRUE/FALSE
The utero-placental arteries have alpha-adrenergic receptors. TRUE/FALSE
The greatest driving force for diffusion of oxygen from maternal to foetal blood is the Bohr effect. TRUE/FALSE
The Haldane effect facilitates oxygen transfer from the mother to the foetus. TRUE/FALSE
The foetus has foetal haemoglobin which has a greater affinity for oxygen than adult haemoglobin. TRUE/FALSE
SS_OB 1.5 Describe the mechanism and consequences of aorta-caval compression in pregnancy
In supine hypotensive syndrome, blood still returns to the right heart through the epidural, azygos and vertebral veins. TRUE/FALSE
Supine hypotension is compensated by an increase in peripheral sympathetic activity. TRUE/FALSE
The blood pressure measured in the arms, is a reliable predictor of uterine and placental blood flow, when the patient is supine. TRUE/FALSE
Aortocaval compression can reduce uterine perfusion due to reduced uterine venous pressure. TRUE/FALSE
General anaesthesia has no effect on supine hypotensive syndrome. TRUE/FALSE
SS_OB 1.6 Describe the changes in the anatomy of the maternal airway and their impact on airway management during anaesthesia.
SS_OB 1.1 Describe the physiological changes and their implications for anaesthesia that occur during pregnancy, labour and delivery.
The increased risk of airway bleeding during manipulation is primarily due to platelet dysfunction in pregnancy. TRUE/FALSE
Lung compliance decreases in pregnancy. TRUE/FALSE
Closing capacity increases during pregnancy. TRUE/FALSE
Oxygen consumption is increased at term, regardless of whether the patient is in labour or not. TRUE/FALSE
Airway oedema can occur due to venous engorgement from labour. TRUE/FALSE
SB_OB 1.3 Describe the transition from foetal to neonatal circulation and the establishment of ventilation.
At birth, the circulation changes from parallel to in series. TRUE/FALSE
Delivery of the neonate causes a reduction in flow through the IVC to the right atrium. TRUE/FALSE
The newborn’s ventricle is less compliant than an adult’s due to a lower proportion of non contractile proteins in the myocardial cells. TRUE/FALSE
Pulmonary vascular resistance falls at birth due to decreasing pH TRUE/FALSE
The neonatal circulation can revert back to the pattern of foetal circulation if there is pulmonary vasoconstriction. TRUE/FALSE
SS_OB 1.7 Describe the changes in the anatomy of the maternal vertebral column, the spinal cord and meninges relevant to the performance of a central neuraxial block including epidural, spinal and combined spinal-epidural, with appropriate surface markings
TRUE/FALSE The risk of inadvertent venous puncture, with epidural placement in pregnant women, is the same as in the non-pregnant population
TRUE/FALSE The line joining the iliac crests (Tuffier’s line) may transverse the body of L5 in late pregnancy
TRUE/FALSE Epidural space pressure may be positive during labour
TRUE/FALSE Epidural veins are engorged in late pregnancy
TRUE/FALSE The ligamentum flavum softens during pregancy
Describe the physiological changes and their implications for anaesthesia that occur during pregnancy, labour and delivery, in particular the respiratory, cardiovascular, haematological and gastrointestinal changes.
Normal physiological changes begin in the first trimester of pregnancy. TRUE/FALSE
The largest increase in cardiac output in a pregnant woman occurs immediately after delivery. TRUE/FALSE
The closing capacity in normal pregnancy does not change. TRUE/FALSE
Gastrin is secreted by the placenta TRUE/FALSE
Progesterone from the gestational sac may cause changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the first trimester, promoting sodium absorption and water retention. TRUE/FALSE
Hats off to those of you who sit this exam pregnant!
Keep the dream alive! Read “Primary LO of the Day”.
Outline the reference ranges for physiological and biochemical variables in pregnancy
Uterine blood flow is approximately 20% of maternal cardiac output at term gestation TRUE/FALSE
Maternal hyperventilation facilitates removal of CO2 from the foetus TRUE/FALSE
Antithrombin III and factor XIII are decreased in pregnancy TRUE/FALSE
Haemoglobin concentration and total red cell mass are decreased 15-20% in pregnancy TRUE/FALSE
The word “glidescope” is pronounced the same as “kaleidoscope” TRUE/FALSE