T/F a systemic inflammatory response (of varying degrees) will occur in response to surgery or trauma
T/F a patient with “systemic inflammatory response syndrome” (SIRS) may be hypotensive, but hypotension is not essential for the diagnosis
T/F one element of the inflammatory response is mediated by cytokines, which are released from damaged tissues, and white blood cells
T/F the main cytokine released is interleukin-6 (IL-6)
T/F cytokines ramp up the immune response, and cause vasodilation, capillary leak, and fever
T/F another element of the stress response is a neuro-endocrine response mediated by the hypothalamus, in response to nociceptive inputs reaching the brain
T/F the neuro-endocrine response includes: increased ADH, increased ACTH (therefore cortisol**), and sympathetic nervous system activation
** what are the consequences of increased cortisol?
1. Hemmings & Hopkins. Foundations of anesthesia – basic sciences for clinical practice, 2nd ed, 2006, Chapter 72. (unfortunately not an on-line textbook).
2. there are bits and pieces in the online textbooks but nothing very satisfactory
3. Burton D etal. Endocrine and metabolic response to surgery. CEACCP, 2004; 4: 144-147. (a good summary article that you can access via the ANZCA library)