2018.2 SAQ 15 prostaglandin effect on smooth muscle

Describe the physiological role of prostaglandins on smooth muscle throughout the body.

You may think this is an obscure question, however a group of drugs we use commonly (NSAIDS in case you were wondering) effectively counteract the physiological effects of these autacoids.

Vallecula recently posted  on prostaglandins if you would like to review some more statements

Interestingly Katzung’s Basic and Clinical Pharmacology has a very good chapter (Chapter 18) discussing, amongst other things, prostaglandins.

BT_PO 1.89 Outline the physiological effects of prostaglandins and other autacoids

PGF2α causes contraction of uterine muscle, but relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle T/F

Prostaglandins generally cause contraction of GIT smooth muscle T/F

Prostacyclin, PGI2, causes vasodilation of arterioles through the release of nitric oxide T/F

Thromboxane mediates vascular smooth muscle contraction via increasing intracellular calcium levels T/F

PGF2α is a potent constrictor of the pulmonary vasculature, contraindicating its use intravenously T/F

2018.2 SAQ Q12 – physiological control of blood glucose

This topic is considered important because we routinely fast patients for surgery, and because diabetes now affects 5% of the Australian population.

T/F Insulin levels rise with fasting

T/F Insulin is required for brain cells to utilise glucose

T/F Glucagon reduces blood ketone levels

T/F Insulin release increases glycogen synthesis in the skeletal muscle

T/F Fasting for more than 18 hours causes the blood glucose level to fall to 2.0-2.5 mmol/L

The answers to these questions can be found in Ganong.

BT_PO 1.66 Outline the endocrine functions of the kidney

And it will come as a surprise to no-one reading the posts this week to find I’ve been reading Ganong again.

Vitamin D is hydroxylated to calcitriol in the proximal tubules of the kidney     T/F

Calcitriol increases calcium reabsorption in the proximal tubules of the kidney     T/F

The O2 sensor to control erythropoietin production is probably a heme protein     T/F

Increasing catecholamines will stimulate erythropoietin production     T/F

Erythropoietin is also produced in the brain     T/F