BT_PO 1.45 Cardiac output

No pictures today, just an LO which features heavily in the SAQs and vivas.

BT_PO 1.45  Discuss the factors that determine and control cardiac output and the implications for clinical practice including:
· Preload, afterload and contractility

· The Frank-Starling mechanism

· Cardiac output and vascular function curves

· Pressure volume relationships in the heart

The heart only has to work against afterload once the aortic and pulmonary valves are open and ejection of ventricular blood begins TRUE/FALSE

If afterload and contractility remain unchanged, increasing preload will result in a decreased end-systolic ventricular volume TRUE/FALSE

In sinus rhythm, atrial contraction contributes about 30% to the end diastolic ventricular volume TRUE/FALSE

A Frank Starling curve relates ventricular end diastolic volume to left ventricular pressure TRUE/FALSE

In normovolaemic patients, IPPV causes an increase in cardiac output TRUE/FALSE

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